Prerequisites for new users¶
Please, make sure you have:
- a proper power supply according to the board manufacturer requirements (basic usage example: 5V/2A with DC Jack barrel OR thick USB cable)
- a reliable SD card (see below “How to prepare a SD card?”)
What to download?¶
For each board we usually provide:
- CLI Debian Jessie
- CLI and desktop Ubuntu Xenial
Some boards have different options due to their hardware specialities - router or IOT boards.
Legacy or mainline?¶
Both kernels, where exists, are stable and production ready, but you should use them for different purpuses since their basic support differ:
- legacy: video acceleration, NAND support, connecting displays
- mainline: headless server, light desktop operations
How to check download authenticity?¶
All our images are digitally signed and therefore it’s possible to check theirs authentication. You need to unzip the download package and issue those commands (Linux):
# download my public key from the database gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-key 9F0E78D5 gpg --verify Armbian_5.18_Armada_Debian_jessie_3.10.94.img.asc # proper respond gpg: Signature made sob 09 jan 2016 15:01:03 CET using RSA key ID 9F0E78D5 gpg: Good signature from "Igor Pecovnik (Ljubljana, Slovenia) <firstname.lastname@example.org>" # wrong repond. Not genuine Armbian image! gpg: Signature made Sun 03 Jan 2016 11:46:25 AM CET using RSA key ID 9F0E78D5 gpg: BAD signature from "Igor Pecovnik (Ljubljana, Slovenia) <email@example.com>"
It is safe to ignore WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
How to prepare a SD card?¶
Important note: Make sure you use a good & reliable SD card. If you encounter boot or stability troubles in over 95 percent of the time it’s either insufficient power supply or related to SD card (bad card, bad card reader, something went wrong when burning the image). Armbian can simply not run on unreliable hardware so checking your SD card with either F3 or H2testw is mandatory if you run in problems. Since counterfeit SD cards are still an issue checking with F3/H2testw directly after purchase is highly recommended.
7z and zip archives can be uncompressed with 7-Zip on Windows, Keka on OS X and 7z on Linux (apt-get install p7zip-full). Raw images can be written with Etcher (all OS). Image writing takes up to 2 minutes on a good SD card.
Also important: SD cards are optimised for sequential reads/writes as it’s common in digital cameras. This is what the speed class is about. And while you shouldn’t buy or use any card rated less than class 10 you should especially take care to choose one that is known to show high random I/O performance since this is way more performance relevant when used with any SBC. Even cards advertised as being ‘high speed’ can show horribly low random IO performance in reality.
You won’t be wrong picking one of these:
In case you chose an SD card that was already in use before please consider resetting it back to ‘factory default’ performance with SD Formatter before burning Armbian to it (explanation in the forum). Detailed information regarding ‘factory default’ SD card performance:
- SD card performance with Armbian - Thomas Kaiser
- Raspberry Pi microSD card performance comparison - Jeff Geerling
- The Best microSD Card - Kimber Streams
How to boot?¶
Insert SD card into a slot and power the board. First boot takes around 3 minutes then it reboots and you will need to wait another one minute to login. This delay is because system updates package list and creates 128Mb emergency SWAP on the SD card.
Normal boot (with DHCP) takes up to 35 seconds with a class 10 SD Card and cheapest board.
How to login?¶
Login as root on console or via SSH and use password 1234. You will be prompted to change this password at first login. You will then be asked to create a normal user account that is sudo enabled (beware of default QWERTY keyboard settings at this stage).
Desktop images starts into desktop without asking for password. To change this add some display manager:
apt-get install lightdm
… or edit the contents of file:
and change the autologin user.
How to update?¶
apt-get update apt-get upgrade
Update process can take hours in case of using cheap SD card and/or under heavy load.
If kernels was upgraded during this process, you will be prompted to reboot at next login.
How to install to eMMC, NAND, SATA & USB?¶
- kernel 3.4.x and NAND storage
- pre-installed system on NAND (stock Android or other Linux)
- any kernel
- onboard eMMC storage or permanently attached SATA or USB storage
Start the install script:
and follow the guide. You can create up to three scenarios:
- boot from SD, system on SATA / USB
- boot from eMMC / NAND, system on eMMC/NAND
- boot from eMMC / NAND, system on SATA / USB
and you can choose the following file system options:
On Allwinner devices after switching to boot from NAND or eMMC clearing the boot loader signature on the SD card is recommended:
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/mmcblkN bs=1024 seek=8 count=1 (replace
/dev/mmcblkN with the correct device node – in case you run this directly after
nand-sata-install without a reboot in between then it’s
/dev/mmcblk0). When booting from eMMC to get SD cards auto-detected on Allwinner legacy images please consider changing
sdc_detmode from 3 to 1 in the board’s fex file (see here for details).
How to connect to wireless?¶
Required condition: a board with onboard or supported 3rd party wireless adapter on USB
If you know what is your wireless SSID:
If you don’t know, you can browse and then connect
How to set fixed IP?¶
By default your main network adapter’s IP is assigned by your router DHCP server.
iface eth0 inet dhcp
change to - for example:
iface eth0 inet static address 192.168.1.100 netmask 255.255.255.0 gateway 192.168.1.1